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International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion
ESCI SJR: 0.149 SNIP: 0.16 CiteScore™: 0.29

ISSN Imprimer: 2150-766X
ISSN En ligne: 2150-7678

International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion

DOI: 10.1615/IntJEnergeticMaterialsChemProp.v6.i6.30
pages 691-712

ACOUSTIC EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FOR CHARACTERIZING HYDROCARBON/OXYGEN DIFFUSION FLAME BEHAVIOR

Jeffrey D. Moore
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802
Grant A. Risha
The Pennsylvania State University-Altoona, Altoona, Pennsylvania 16601, USA
Baoqi Zhang
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA
Kenneth K. Kuo
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA

RÉSUMÉ

An investigation was performed to characterize the behavior of a hydrocarbon/oxygen diffusion flame by acoustic emission measurements. Experiments were performed in a horizontally mounted, 2-D axisymmetric stainless steel chamber with a single shear coaxial injector and an adjustable graphite nozzle at the chamber exit for maintaining a constant chamber pressure. Methane gas flowed through the annular injector port while oxygen exited the center port. Ignition of the diffusion flame was achieved by a C2H6/O2 torch. Four acoustic transducers placed circumferentially around the diffusion flame at various locations were used in combination with a Pyrex viewing window to observe and classify the diffusion flame as either an anchored flame to the injector, a detached flame with small amplitudes of oscillation, or a near-blowout flame with large amplitudes of oscillation. Results showed that there was a noticeable difference in diffusion flame acoustic emission spectra based on flame stability behavior. Anchored diffusion flames showed no significant trace of acoustic emission at fuel flow rates below 0.65 g/s. Stable, small oscillating detached flames showed minimal amplitude acoustic levels, whereas near-blowout diffusion flames covered a wide range of acoustic frequencies. As the diffusion flame exhibited greater instability behavior, more frequency hits (a measure of the number of times an acoustic signal exceeded a preset threshold) at higher amplitudes were generated until eventual flame blowout occurred. Any increase in the (O/F)mass resulted in an increase in acoustic frequency amplitude and absolute energy. Narrower frequency ranges at higher amplitude values also accompanied this increase in (O/F)mass.


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