Suscripción a Biblioteca: Guest
Portal Digitalde Biblioteca Digital eLibros Revistas Referencias y Libros de Ponencias Colecciones
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Factor de Impacto: 1.423 Factor de Impacto de 5 años: 1.525 SJR: 0.431 SNIP: 0.716 CiteScore™: 2.6

ISSN Imprimir: 1521-9437
ISSN En Línea: 1940-4344

Volumen 22, 2020 Volumen 21, 2019 Volumen 20, 2018 Volumen 19, 2017 Volumen 18, 2016 Volumen 17, 2015 Volumen 16, 2014 Volumen 15, 2013 Volumen 14, 2012 Volumen 13, 2011 Volumen 12, 2010 Volumen 11, 2009 Volumen 10, 2008 Volumen 9, 2007 Volumen 8, 2006 Volumen 7, 2005 Volumen 6, 2004 Volumen 5, 2003 Volumen 4, 2002 Volumen 3, 2001 Volumen 2, 2000 Volumen 1, 1999

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2019033047
pages 1241-1247

The Brown Roll-Rim Mushroom, Paxillus involutus (Agaricomycetes), as a Promising Biomedical Research Resource

Ivan V. Zmitrovich
Laboratory of Systematics and Geography of the Fungi of the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prof. Popova St. 2, St. Petersburg, 197376, Russia
Nina V. Belova
Laboratory of Fungal Biochemistry, Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 Professor Popov St., St. Petersburg 197376, Russia
Nadezhda V. Psurtseva
Laboratory of Fungal Biochemistry, Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 Professor Popov St., St. Petersburg 197376, Russia
Solomon P. Wasser
International Centre for Biotechnology and Biodiversity of Fungi Institute of Evolution and Faculty of Natural Sciences University of Haifa, Mt. Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel


The brown roll-rim mushroom (Paxillus involutus) quickly produces biomass in nature, although, being a mycorrhizal fungus, it is rather poorly maintained in culture. Information about its toxic properties is controversial. Until the mid-20th century, the species was considered as an edible fungus; however, data later accumulated regarding its poisonous properties, leading to the term "Paxillus syndromeP. involutus. Since mushrooms can have quite a few unidentified antigens complementary to B-lymphocyte receptors, this is a hidden danger of using unfractionated mushroom raw materials for preventive and oncotherapy purposes, and we hope that this article stimulates immunological groups worldwide to identify the "X" antigen related to the Paxillus syndrome. Oncotherapy effects of the known bioactive complexes of P. involutus are associated with a specific inhibition of some growth receptors of the cancer cell, whereas experimentation with purified substances of P. involutus and various families of growth receptors of cancer cell has good prospects. A clear speciation is fixing within the P. involutus complex. The key for identification of species of P. involutus complex is given and cultural characteristics of P. involutus strains kept at Komarov Botanical Institute Basidiomycetes Culture Collection are presented.


  1. Fries E. Epicrisis systematis mycologici. Uppsala: Typographia Academica; 1838.

  2. Orton PD. Notes on British agarics III. Notes Roy Bot Gard Edinburgh. 1969;29(1):75-127.

  3. Watling R. New fungi from Michigan. Notes Roy Bot Gard Edinburgh. 1969;29(1):59-66.

  4. Wasser SP. Paxillus zerovae sp. nov. (Boletales)-new species from steppe zone ofUkraine. Ukrainian Bot J. 1973;30(5):667-68.

  5. Dessi P, Contu M. Paxillus ammoniavirescens spec. nov. con note sul genere Paxillus in Sardegna. Micol Veg Mediterr. 1998;13(2):121-30.

  6. Hahn C, Agerer R. Studien zum Paxillus-involutus-Formenkreis. N Hedwig. 1999;69:241-310.

  7. Gelardi M, Vizzini A, Horak E, Ercole E, Voyon S, Wu G. Paxillus orientalis sp. nov. (Paxillaceae, Boletales) from south-western China based on morphological and molecular data and proposal of the new subgenus Alnopaxillus. Mycol Prog. 2014;13(2):333-42.

  8. Jargeat P, Chaumeton JP, Navaud O, Vizzini A, Gryta H. The Paxillus involutus complex (Boletales, Paxillaceae) in Europe: genetic diversity and morphological description of the new species Paxillus cuprinus sp. nov., typification of P. involutus s.s and synthesis of species boundaries. Fungal Biol. 2014;118:12-31.

  9. Hedh J, Samson P, Erland S, Tunlid A. Multiple gene genealogies and species recognition in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. Mycol Res. 2008;112(8):965-75.

  10. Chiu SW, Moore D. Patterns in fungal development. Cambridge: University Press; 1996.

  11. Breitenbach J, Kranzlin F. Fungi of Switzerland 3: Boletes and Agarics, pt 1. Lucerne: Edition Mycologia; 1991.

  12. Zmitrovich IV. Phenomenology of mycelium. Moscow; 2012. Available from:

  13. Zmitrovich IV, Wasser SP. Modern view on the origin and phylogenetics reconstruction of Homobasidiomycetes fungi. In: Wasser SP, editor. Evolutionary theory and processes: modern horizons. Dordrecht (Netherlands): L. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2004. p. 230-263.

  14. Sato H, Toju H. Timing of evolutionary innovation: scenarios of evolutionary diversification in a species-rich fungal clade, Boletales. New Phytol. 2019;222:1670-72.

  15. Shah F, Schwenk D, Nicolas C, Persson P, Hoffmeister D, Tunlid A. Involutin is an Fe3+ reductant secreted by the ecto-mycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus during Fenton-based decomposition of organic matter. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81(24):8427-33.

  16. Zmitrovich IV, Wasser SP, Jura D. Wood-inhabiting fungi. In: Misra JK, et al., editors. Fungi from different substrates. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2015. p. 17-74.

  17. Brandbrud TE. The effects of experimental nitrogen addition on the ectomycorrhizal fungus flora in an oligotrophic spruce forest at Gardsjiin, Sweden. For Ecol Manag. 1995;7(1):1-122.

  18. Brzostowski A, Jarzynskar G, Kojta A, Wydmanska D, Falandysz J. Variations in metal levels accumulated in Poison Pax (Paxillus involutus) mushroom collected at one site over four years. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2011;46:581-88.

  19. Ma Y, He J, Ma C, Luo J, Li H, Liu T, Polle A, Peng C, Luo ZB. Ectomycorrhizas with Paxillus involutus enhance cadmium uptake and tolerance in Populus x canescens. Plant Cell Environ. 2014;37(3):627-42.

  20. Vasilkov BP. Fungi. Moscow: Selkhozgiz; 1959 (in Russian).

  21. Dermek A. Atlas nasich hub. Obzor; 1979 (in Czech).

  22. Phillips R. Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain and Europe. London; 1981.

  23. Smith AH, Smith-Weber N. The mushroom hunter's field guide. Michigan; 1980.

  24. Flammer R. Paxillus syndrome: immunohemolysis following repeated mushroom ingestion. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1985;74(37):997-99.

  25. Pohle W. Paxillus involutus - a dangerous mushroom? Czech Mycol. 1995;48:31-38.

  26. Winkelmann M, Borchard F, Stangel W, Grabensee B. Fatal immunohaemolytic anaemia after eating the mushroom Paxillus involutus. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1982;107(31-32):1190-94.

  27. Sanitary rules for the harvesting, processing and sale of mushrooms (JV, approved. Resolution of the State Committee for Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of Russia of 20.08.93. 1993. No. 10.

  28. Gill M, Steglich W. Pigments of fungi (Macromycetes). Prog Chem Org Nat Prod. 1987;51:1-317.

  29. Velisek J, Cejpek K. Pigments of higher fungi-a review. Czech J Food Sci. 2011;29:87-102.

  30. Braesel J, Gotze S, Shah F, Heine D, Tauber J, Hertweck C, Tunlid A, Stallforth P, Hoffmeister D. Three redundant synthetases secure redox-active pigment production in the basidiomycete Paxillus involutus. Chem Biol. 2015;22:1325-34.

  31. Antkowiak R, Antkowiak WZ, Banczyk I, Mikolajczyk L. Heterocycles 2009:79(1):10.3987/C0M-08-S(D)66.

  32. Wang SX, Zhang GQ, Zhao S, Xu F, Zhou Y, Li XG, Liu Y, Wang HX. Purification and characterization of a novel lectin with antiphytovirus activities from the wild mushroom Paxillus involutus. Protein Pept Lett. 2013;20(7):767-74.

  33. Barad A, Mackedenski S, Li WM, Li XJ, Lim BCC, Rashid F, Tackaberry LE, Massicotte HB, Egger KN, Reimer K, Cheung PCK, Lee CH. Anti-proliferative activity of a purified polysaccharide isolated from the basidiomycete fungus Paxillus involutus. Carbohydr Polym. 2018;181:923-30.

  34. Birdsall HH. Adaptive immunity: antibodies and immunodeficiencies. In: Bennett JE, et al., editors. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2015, p. 34-49.

  35. Actor JK. Adaptive immune response and hypersensitivity. In: Elsevier's integrated review immunology and microbiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2012. p. 53-59.

  36. Habtemariam S. Cytotoxicity of extracts from the mushroom Paxillus involutus. Toxicon. 1996;34(6):711-13.

  37. Utomo RYu, Herwandhani P, Pudjono, Susidarti RA, Jenie RI, Meiyanto E. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of 2,5-bis(4-boronic acid)benzylidine cyclopentanone on HER2-overexpressed cancer cells. Indones J Pharm. 2017;28(2):74-81.

  38. Ferreira IG, Pucci M, Venturi G, Malagolini N, Chiricolo M, Dall'Olio F. Glycosylation as a main regulator of growth and death factor receptors signaling. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19:2-28.

  39. Zmitrovich IV, Belova NV, Balandaykin ME, Bondartseva MA, Wasser SP. Cancer without pharmacological illusions and a niche for mycotherapy (review). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2019;21(2):105-19.

  40. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. GBIF backbone taxonomy. 2019. Available from:

  41. Shubin VI. The value of symbiosis and nitrogen content in the soil for fructification of ectomycorrhizal fungi. II. The value of nitrogen. Mikol Fitopatol. 2010;44(4):352-58 (in Russian).

  42. Hutchison LJ. Description and identification of cultures of ectomycorrhizal fungi found in North America. Mycotaxon. 1991;42:387-504.

Articles with similar content:

Study of Antiprotozoal Activity and Mitogenic Effects Within Some Medicinal Mushrooms
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.7, 2005, issue 3
S. H. Sisakyan, Susanna M. Badalyan
Medically Significant White-Rot Basidiomycetes: Metabolic and Biochemical Characteristics
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.7, 2005, issue 3
Nina V. Belova, Natalia S. Yakovleva
Ethnomycological Studies of Some Wild Medicinal and Edible Mushrooms in the Kashmir Himalayas (India)
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.15, 2013, issue 2
Mohmmad Yaqoub Bhat, Shauket Ahmed Pala, Abdul Hamid Wani
GACOCA Formulation of East African Wild Mushrooms Show Promise in Combating Kaposi's Sarcoma and HIV/ AIDS
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.7, 2005, issue 3
Julius David Sumba
General Description of the Most Important Medicinal Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms. 1.
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.1, 1999, issue 4
Solomon P. Wasser, Alexander L. Weis