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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Factor de Impacto: 2.156 Factor de Impacto de 5 años: 2.255 SJR: 0.649 SNIP: 0.599 CiteScore™: 3

ISSN Imprimir: 1045-4403
ISSN En Línea: 2162-6502

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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2020034571
pages 337-348

Role of MicroRNAs in Establishing Latency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Muhammad Munam Mustafa Bukhari
Division of Molecular Virology, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Iqra Mir
Division of Molecular Virology, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Idrees
Division of Molecular Virology and Infectious Diseases, Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore-Pakistan; Hazara University, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Samia Afzal
Division of Molecular Virology & Molecular Diagnostics, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Shahid
Division of Molecular Virology, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan


Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) emerged as an epidemic in Africa in 1981, and now it has become a most destructive global pandemic. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for the pathogenesis of AIDS, and it is usually transmitted through unsafe sexual activities. HIV is a lentivirus that can remain latent in the host cells for a long period, and it has various mechanisms to establish latency. The HIV genome encodes several microRNAs (miRNA-TAR, miRNA-H1, miRNA-H3, and miRNA-Nef-367) that act as posttranscriptional control by targeting mRNA sequences. The miRNA-TAR, miRNA-Nef-367, and miRNA-H1 have established roles in HIV latency, whereas miRNA-H3 can activate the latent reservoirs of HIV. The human genome also encodes several miRNAs that have defensive roles against infections. Cellular miRNAs (miRNA-29a, miRNA-146a, miRNA-34c-5'p, miRNA-186, miRNA-210 and miRNA-222) also contribute to viral latency. The most challenging hurdle in the development of effective HIV therapeutics is viral latency. A complete understanding of latency will enable us to develop efficient therapeutics and to eradicate HIV from the globe.


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