Suscripción a Biblioteca: Guest
Portal Digitalde Biblioteca Digital eLibros Revistas Referencias y Libros de Ponencias Colecciones
International Journal of Energy for a Clean Environment
SJR: 0.195 SNIP: 0.435 CiteScore™: 0.74

ISSN Imprimir: 2150-3621
ISSN En Línea: 2150-363X

International Journal of Energy for a Clean Environment

Formerly Known as Clean Air: International Journal on Energy for a Clean Environment

DOI: 10.1615/InterJEnerCleanEnv.2019029547
pages 95-111


Sridharan Chandrasekaran
Petroleum Engineering Program, Department of Ocean Engineering, IIT-Madras, Chennai-600036, India
Suresh Kumar Govindarajan
Indian Institute of Technology- Madras


In this work, a mathematical one-dimensional two-phase model (liquid + gas) has been developed to simulate the dynamic flow system in the event of a gas kick during vertical drilling. The flow system is a drift-flux model where the fluid properties are represented by averaged mixture properties rather than by two independent formulations. With this model, different flow scenarios and influx fluid propagation are investigated in vertical wells. The numerical solution is based on finite volume staggered discretization solved implicitly by a first-order upwind scheme. A sensitivity analysis of the influx model parameters, namely, the gas slip velocity, was performed and its impact on the bottom hole pressure and kick propagation is demonstrated. This model is further extended to predict the kick velocity and pressure in the annulus at the bit based on surface flow measurements in real-time drilling. This paper details on the model development of transient two-phase flow along with validation with experimental results. It is found from the study that the developed light-weight simulation model could be employed in real-time drilling to model influx events, and the drift-flux simulation approach is comparable with the experimental and analytical results.


  1. Ambrus, A., Aarsnes, U.J.F., Vajargah, A.K., Akbari, B., and van Oort, E., (2015) , A Simplified Transient Multiphase Model for Automated Well Control Applications, Int. Petroleum Technology Conf., Doha, Qatar.

  2. Avelar, C.S., Ribeiro, P.R., and Sepehrnoori, K., (2009) , Deepwater Gas Kick Simulation, J. Petrol. Sci. Eng., 67(1–2), pp. 13–22. DOI: 10.1016/j.petrol.2009.03.001

  3. Beggs, D.H. and Brill, J.P., (1973) , A Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes, J. Petrol. Technol., 25(5), pp. 607–617. DOI: 10.2118/4007-PA

  4. Bhandari, J., Abbassi, R., Garaniya, V., and Khan, F., (2015) , Risk Analysis of Deepwater Drilling Operations Using Bayesian Network, J. Loss Prevention Proc. Industries, 38, pp. 11–23. DOI: 10.1016/j. jlp.2015.08.004

  5. Bryant, T.M., Grosso, D.S., and Wallace, S.N., (1991) , Gas-Influx Detection with MWD Technology, SPE Drilling Eng., 6(4). DOI: 10.2118/19973-PA

  6. Fraser, D., Lindley, R., Moore, D.D., and Vander Staak, M., (2014) , Early Kick Detection Methods and Technologies, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Society of Petroleum Engineers. DOI: 10.2118/170756- MS

  7. Hargreaves, D., Jardine, S., and Jeffreys, B., (2001) , Early Kick Detection for Deepwater Drilling: New Probabilistic Methods Applied in the Field, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, LA, USA. DOI: 10.2523/71369-MS

  8. Hibiki, T. and Ishii, M., (2003) , One-Dimensional Drift-Flux Model and Constitutive Equations for Relative Motion between Phases in Various Two-Phase Flow Regimes, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 46(25), pp. 4935–4948. DOI: 10.1016/S0017-9310(03)00322-3

  9. Meng, Y., Li, H., Li, G., Zhu, L., Wei, N., and Lin, N., (2015), Investigation on Propagation Characteristics of the Pressure Wave in Gas Flow through Pipes and Its Application in Gas Drilling, J. Natural Gas Sci. Eng., 22, pp. 163–171. DOI: 10.1016/j.jngse.2014.11.026

  10. Pan, L., Webb, S.W., and Oldenburg, C.M., (2011) , Analytical Solution for Two-Phase Flow in a Wellbore Using the Drift-Flux Model, Adv. Water Resources, 34(12), pp. 1656–1665. DOI: 10.1016/j. advwatres.2011.08.009

  11. Richter, H.J., (1981) , Flooding in Tubes and Annuli, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 7(6), pp. 647–658. DOI: 10.1016/0301-9322(81)90036-7

  12. Santos, O.L.A., (1991) , Well-Control Operations in Horizontal Wells, SPE Drilling Eng., 6(2), pp. 111–117. DOI: 10.2118/21105-PA

  13. Shi, H., Holmes, J.A., Durlofsky, L.J., Aziz, K., Diaz, L., Alkaya, B., and Oddie, G., (2005) , Drift-Flux Modeling of Two-Phase Flow in Wellbores, Soc. Petrol. Eng., 10, pp. 24–33. DOI: 10.2118/84228-PA

  14. Sunthankar, A.A., Kuru, E., Miska, S., and Kamp, A., (2001) , New Developments in Aerated Mud Hydraulics for Drilling in Inclined Wells, SPE Drilling Completion, 18(2), pp. 152–158. DOI: 10.2118/87675-PA

  15. Udegbunam, J.E., Fjelde, K.K., Evje, S., and Nygaard, G., (2014) , A Simple Transient Flow Model for MPD and UBD Applications, SPE/IADC Managed Pressure Drilling and Underbalanced Operations Conference and Exhibition, Madrid, Spain. DOI: 10.2118/168960-MS