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Heat Transfer Research
Factor de Impacto: 1.199 Factor de Impacto de 5 años: 1.155 SJR: 0.267 SNIP: 0.503 CiteScore™: 1.4

ISSN Imprimir: 1064-2285
ISSN En Línea: 2162-6561

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Heat Transfer Research

DOI: 10.1615/HeatTransRes.2018026607
pages 1417-1436


Taylor Bevis
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO
Bryan Burk
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO
Jensen Hoke
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO
Jack Kotovsky
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA
Julie Hamilton
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA
Todd M. Bandhauer
Interdisciplinary Thermal Science Laboratory Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80524, USA


Packaging high average power laser diode arrays that generate heat at an area average flux in excess of 1 kW·cm-2 is a significant engineering challenge. While liquid microchannel coolers have demonstrated up to 11.9 kW·cm-2, two-phase microchannel array coolers have not achieved 1 kW cm-2 due to critical heat flux and flow instabilities. In the current study, flow boiling heat transfer was characterized by a 1 × 10 mm heated zone centered over a 5 × 10 mm array of 125 very small channels (45 × 200 μm) with R134a as the phase change fluid. The high aspect ratio channels (4.4:1) were manufactured using MEMS fabrication techniques, which yielded a large heat transfer surface area to volume ratio. A test facility was used to characterize the heat transfer performance of boiling R134a over a range of saturation temperatures (15°C to 25°C), mass fluxes (735-2230 kg·m-2·s-1), and heat duties (< 110.3 W). During the tests, the calculated outlet vapor quality exceeded 61%, and the base heat flux at the heater reached a maximum of 1.1 kW·cm-2. The resulting average experimental flow boiling heat transfer coefficients are found to be as large a 13.4 kW·m-2·K-1 over the approximately 3 mm two-phase region, with an average uncertainty of ± 2.72%. A substantial amount of heat was spread downstream via the low thermal resistance silicon floor. Specifically, between 29.5% and 55.1% of the heat dissipated in the two-phase region was dissipated over the heater. The remaining heat dissipated in the two-phase region was dissipated in the 2 mm of channel downstream of the heater. This suggests that heat spreading from the hotspot played a vital role in dissipating the heat load.


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