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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
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ISSN Imprimir: 1040-8401
ISSN En Línea: 2162-6472

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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2014010062
pages 103-120

Regulation of Chemokine Expression in the Tumor Microenvironment

Anton V. Gorbachev
Department of Immunology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 44195
Robert L. Fairchild
Department of Immunology and Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195 and Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106

SINOPSIS

Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines critical for homeostatic and inflammation-induced trafficking of leukocytes during immune responses, hematopoesis, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Despite three decades of intensive study of the chemokine network, the molecular mechanisms regulating chemokine expression during tumor growth are not well understood. In this review, we focus on the role of chemokines in both tumor growth and anti-tumor immune responses and on molecular mechanisms employed by tumor cells to regulate chemokine expression in the tumor microenvironment. Multiple mechanisms used by tumors to regulate chemokine production, including those revealed by very recent studies (such as DNA methylation or post-translational nitrosylation of chemokines) are discussed. Concluding the review, we discuss how understanding of these regulatory mechanisms can be used in cancer therapy to suppress tumor growth and/or to promote immune-mediated eradication of tumors.


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