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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
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ISSN Imprimir: 1040-8401
ISSN En Línea: 2162-6472

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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v30.i2.70
pages 201-222

Biomarkers for Serum Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases and Their Potential Application in Novel Sensor Platforms

Luiz R. Goulart
Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil
Carlos U. Vieira
Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil
Ana Paula P. Freschi
Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil
Fausto E. Capparelli
Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil
Patricia T. Fujimura
Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil
Juliana F. Almeida
Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil
Lucas F. Ferreira
Laboratory of Polymeric Films and Nanotechnology, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil
Isabela M.B. Goulart
Leprosy National Reference Center, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil
Ana Graci Brito-Madurro
Laboratory of Polymeric Films and Nanotechnology, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil
Joao M. Madurro
Leprosy National Reference Center, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil

SINOPSIS

Nanotechnological tools and biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as strategies for disease control and monitoring populations at higher risk, are continuous worldwide challenges for infectious diseases. Phage display and monoclonal antibody combinatorial libraries are important sources for biomarker discovery and for improved diagnostic strategies. Mimetic peptides were selected against polyclonal antibodies from patients with dengue fever, leprosy, and leishmaniasis as model diseases, and from immunized chickens with total antigens from all three pathogens. Selected single or combined multi-epitope peptide biomarkers were further associated with four different sensor platforms, classified as affinity biosensors, that may be suitable as general protocols for field diagnosis. We have also developed two methods for nanoparticle agglutination assays (a particle gel agglutination test and a magnetic microparticle [MMP]-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and two electrochemical biosensors (impedimetric and amperometric) for DNA and antibody detection. For the agglutination tests, micro- and nanoparticles were coupled with flamentous bacteriophages displaying the selected mimotopes on their surfaces, which has favored the formation of the antigen-antibody or peptide-protein complexes, amplifying the optical detection in ELISA assays or after the chromatographic separation of the microagglutinates. We have also demonstrated a proof-of-concept for the electrochemical biosensors by using electrodes modifed with novel functionalized polymers. These electrochemical biosensors have proven to be fast, very sensitive, and specific for the detection of pathogen DNA and circulating antibodies of patients, which may become important in a wide range of diagnostic devices for many infectious agents.


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