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Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants
SJR: 0.145 SNIP: 0.491 CiteScore™: 0.89

ISSN Imprimir: 1050-6934
ISSN En Línea: 1940-4379

Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants

DOI: 10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.2020034017
pages 239-246

The Accessory Soleus Muscle: A Narrative Review of the Literature

Aggeliki Bistaraki
Anatomy and Histology Laboratory, Nursing School, University of Athens, Greece
Maria Zarokosta
University Department of Surgery, General and Oncologic Hospital of Kifissia "Agii Anargiri", Athens, Greece and Anatomy and Histology Laboratory, Nursing School, University of Athens, Greece
Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos
University Department of Surgery, General and Oncologic Hospital of Kifissia "Agii Anargiri", Athens, Greece and Anatomy and Histology Laboratory, Nursing School, University of Athens, Greece
George Skarpas
University Department of Surgery, General and Oncologic Hospital of Kifissia "AgiiAnargiri," Athens, Greece; Anatomy and Histology Laboratory, Nursing School, University of Athens, Greece; Anatomy, Histology and Embryology Laboratory, Nursing School, University of Athens, Greece
Georgios Nousios
Department of Anatomy, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Serres, Aristotles University of Thessaloniki, Serres, Greece
Alexandros P. Apostolopoulos
Trauma and Orthopaedic Department, "Korgialenio-Benakio" Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece; Trauma and Orthopaedic Department, Ealing Hospital, North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom
Stavros Angelis
2nd Orthopaedic Department, General Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece; Orthopaedic and Trauma Department, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece
Dimitrios Filippou
Department of Anatomy and Surgical Anatomy, Medical School, National and Kapodestrian University of Athens · Athens, GRC

SINOPSIS

Purpose: Although the accessory soleus muscle is a rare supernumerary muscle of the leg, its presence has been well discussed in the literature. This rare anatomic variation has been described mainly in the anatomic, surgical, and radiology literature. Awareness of the muscle's presence and its clinical presentation can help with diagnosis without surgical exploration. This narrative review summarizes the available data describing the anatomy, clinical presentation, diagnosis, associated pathologies, and treatment options of this accessory muscle.
Methods: A literature review was performed to provide a comprehensive report of the existing data regarding the accessory soleus muscle. PubMed, Heal Link, and Google Scholar were searched for articles in English reporting on the accessory soleus muscle. The search was conducted using the following key words: "soleus muscle" and "accessory soleus muscle". PubMed was searched primarily, and then cross-referenced articles were found via Heal Link and Google Scholar. Results from non-English studies were excluded.
Results: A total of 148 articles were reviewed. The majority of the articles was composed of case reports along with a review of the literature. After the initial screening, 33 irrelevant studies, 47 duplicates, and 9 non-English articles were excluded; thus, 59 studies were eligible for analysis.
Conclusion: Although the accessory soleus muscle is a rare anatomic variation, many cases have been reported in the literature. Nonetheless, the results reported in this literature review are still inconclusive regarding why some patients are symptomatic and others are not, and the recommendation of therapy protocols. Recognizing this anomaly is important in deciding the right diagnosis and planning the appropriate treatment. However, further research is needed to investigate the symptoms' presentations and propose specific treatment protocols.

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