Library Subscription: Guest
Begell Digital Portal Begell Digital Library eBooks Journals References & Proceedings Research Collections
Practical Thermal Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

ISBN: 1-56700-205-6

Practical Thermal Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

R. Mukherjee

Description

Practical Thermal Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers is a truly practical book with no less than 35 detailed case studies that serve to illustrate concepts, relate different topics and introduce applications. Thermal designers of shell-and-tube heat exchangers (STHE) will find the book indispensable for understanding the mechanics of thermal-hydraulics in STHE's and thereby for utilizing commercially available software packages to produce optimum designs. The book explains the interplay of parameters and unravels many mysteries, converting the design activity from a mundane chore to a matter of joy. By understanding the behavior of STHE's, process engineers will find this book essential for better harnessing and specifying STHE's. The book will be vital for operating plant engineers. Students and teachers of undergraduate and graduate courses in unfired vessel heat transfer will find this book essential for a good understanding of practical design of industrial STHE's. The book has been written in a language which is both pragmatic and easy to understand. This is the first such practical book on STHE thermal design in the market.



240 pages, © 2004

Table of contents:

Preface
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Classification of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
2.1 Components of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
2.2 Front and Rear Heads
2.3 Classification by Construction
2.3.1 Fixed-tubesheet heat exchanger
2.3.2 U-tube heat exchanger
2.3.3 Floating-head heat exchanger
2.4 Classification by Service
Chapter 3: Thermal Design and Optimization of Single-Phase Heat Exchangers
3.1 Broad Objectives of Thermal Design
3.2 Data to be Furnished for Thermal Design
3.3 Tubeside
3.3.1 Effects of tubeside velocity
3.3.2 Heat transfer coefficient
3.3.3 Pressure drop
CASE STUDY 3.1: OPTIMIZING TUBESIDE DESIGN
3.3.4 Importance of stepwise calculations for viscous liquids
CASE STUDY 3.2: STEPWISE CALCULATIONS
3.4 Shellside
3.4.1 Shell type
3.4.2 Tube layout pattern
3.4.3 Tube pitch
3.4.4 Baffling
3.4.5 Stream analysis
CASE STUDY 3.3: VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE PROFILE DISTORTION FACTOR WITH BAFFLE SPACING
CASE STUDY 3.4: OPTIMIZING BAFFLE DESIGN
3.4.6 Reduction of shellside pressure drop
CASE STUDY 3.5: USE OF DOUBLE-SEGMENTAL BAFFLES
Chapter 4: Mean Temperature Difference
4.1 Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)
4.2 Countercurrent Flow
4.3 Co-Current Flow
4.4 Countercurrent and Co-Current Flow: The F<sub>t</sub> Factor
4.5 Temperature Cross
4.6 Heat Release Profiles and Zone-Wise Calculations
4.7 Temperature Profile Distortion
CASE STUDY 4.1: HOW A TEMPERATURE PROFILE DISTORTION PROBLEM IS BETTER HANDLED BY TWO SHELLS IN SERIES
Chapter 5: Allocation of Sides: Shellside and Tubeside
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Parameters for Allocation of Sides
5.2.1 Viscosity
5.2.2 Corrosiveness
5.2.3 Fouling tendency
5.2.4 Pressure
5.2.5 Flow rate
5.2.6 Temperature range
CASE STUDY: 5.1 ALLOCATION OF FLUID SIDES
Chapter 6: Methodology of the Use of Multiple Shells
6.1 Multiple Shells in Parallel
6.2 Multiple Shells in Series
6.2.1 For temperature cross conditions
6.2.2 For better utilization of allowable pressure drop
6.2.3 For improving the temperature profile distortion correction factor
CASE STUDY 6.1: USE OF MULTIPLE SHELLS IN SERIES
6.3 Multiple Shells in Series/Parallel
CASE STUDY 6.2: USE OF MULTIPLE SHELLS IN SERIES/PARALLEL
Chapter 7: Thermal Design and Optimization of Condensers
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Classification
7.2.1 According to construction
7.2.2 According to layout
7.2.3 According to service
7.2.4 According to coolant
7.2.5 According to condensing range
7.2.6 According to operating pressure
7.3 Mechanisms of Condensing
7.3.1 Vertical in-tube condensation
7.3.2 Horizontal in-tube condensation
7.3.3 Condensation outside tubes
7.3.4 Condensation of mixed vapors and mixtures of vapors and noncondensables
7.4 Practical Guidelines for Thermal Design
7.4.1 Baffling
CASE STUDY 7.1: ISOTHERMAL CONDENSATION WITH SINGLE-PASS SHELL AND SINGLE-SEGMENTAL BAFFLES
CASE STUDY 7.2 CONDENSATION WITH SINGLE-PASS SHELL AND DOUBLE-SEGMENTAL BAFFLES
CASE STUDY 7.3 CONDENSATION WITH DIVIDED-FLOW SHELL
7.4.2 Multiple shells in series or parallel
CASE STUDY 7.4: CONDENSATION WITH MULTIPLE SHELLS IN SERIES
CASE STUDY 7.5: CONDENSATION WITH MULTIPLE SHELLS IN SERIES/PARALLEL
7.4.3 Condensation with desuperheating and/or subcooling
CASE STUDY 7.6: CONDENSATION WITH WET-WALL DESUPERHEATING
CASE STUDY 7.7: CONDENSATION WITH DRY-WALL DESUPERHEATING
CASE STUDY 7.8: CONDENSATION WITH INTEGRAL SUBCOOLING
7.4.4 Nozzle sizing
7.4.5 Condensing profiles and MTD
7.4.6 Low-pressure condenser design
CASE STUDY 7.9: TUBESIDE CONDENSATION
7.5 Special Applications
7.5.1 Use of low-fin tubes
CASE STUDY 7.10: USE OF LOW-FIN TUBES
7.5.2 Vacuum condenser design: Ejector condensers and surface condensers
CASE STUDY 7.11 EJECTOR INTERCONDENSER
Chapter 8: Thermal Design and Optimization of Reboilers
8.1 Pool Boiling
8.2 Parameters Affecting Pool Boiling
8.2.1 Surface effects
8.2.2 Mixture effects
8.2.3 Pressure effects
8.2.4 Tube bundle geometry effects
8.3 Maximum Heat Flux
8.4 Flow Boiling
8.5 Distillation Column Reboilers
8.5.1 Internal reboilers
CASE STUDY 8.1: LIGHT HYDROCARBON REBOILER (INTERNAL REBOILER)
8.5.2 Kettle reboilers
CASE STUDY 8.2: STRIPPER REBOILER (KETTLE REBOILER)
8.5.3 Horizontal thermosyphon reboilers
CASE STUDY 8.3: DISTILLATION COLUMN REBOILER (HORIZONTAL THERMOSYPHON)
8.5.4 Vertical thermosyphon reboilers
CASE STUDY 8.4: DISTILLATION COLUMN REBOILER (VERTICAL THERMOSYPHON)
CASE STUDY 8.5: DISTILLATION COLUMN REBOILER (VERTICAL THERMOSYPHON/KETTLE)
8.5.5 Forced-flow reboilers
CASE STUDY 8.6: DISTILLATION COLUMN REBOILER (VERTICAL THERMOSYPHON/FORCED-FLOW)
8.6 Selection of Reboilers
8.7 Start-Up of Reboilers
Chapter 9: Physical Properties and Heat Release Profiles
9.1 Physical Properties
9.2 Physical Property Profiles
9.3 Heat Release Profiles
9.4 How to Feed Heat Release Profiles
Chapter 10: Overdesign
10.1 Mechanics of Overdesign
10.2 Overdesign in Single-Phase Heat Exchangers
CASE STUDY 10.1: EFFECT OF OVERDESIGN . HIGH-TEMPERATURE APPROACH CASE
CASE STUDY 10.2: EFFECT OF OVERDESIGN . LOW-TEMPERATURE APPROACH CASE
10.3 Overdesign in Reboilers
10.4 Overdesign in Condensers
10.5 Overdesign Factor
10.6 Tube Plugging
Chapter 11: Fouling: Its Consequences and Mitigation
11.1 Categories of Fouling
11.2 Progress of Fouling
11.3 Parameters That Affect Fouling
11.4 How to Provide a Fouling Allowance
11.5 Selection of Fouling Resistance
11.6 Design Guidelines to Minimize Fouling
11.6.1 Use heat exchanger types that foul less
11.6.2 When shell-and-tube exchangers have to be used
11.6.2.1 Dirty fluid inside tubes
11.6.2.2 Dirty fluid outside tubes
CASE STUDY 11.1: INCREASING SHELLSIDE VELOCITY FOR REDUCING FOULING
CASE STUDY 11.2: USE OF FOULING LAYER THICKNESS
Chapter 12: Vibration Analysis
Introduction
12.1 Mechanics of Flow-Induced Vibration
12.1.1 Natural frequency
12.1.2 Flow-induced vibration phenomena
12.1.3 How and when tubes vibrate
12.1.4 Damping
12.1.5 Modes of tube failure
12.2 How to Predict Damaging Flow-Induced Vibration
12.3 Vital Link between Flow-Induced Vibration and Pressure Drop
12.4 Producing a Design that is Safe against Flow-Induced Vibration
CASE STUDY 12.1: PRODUCING A SAFE DESIGN USING DOUBLE-SEGMENTAL BAFFLES IN A SINGLE-PASS SHELL
CASE STUDY 12.2: PRODUCING A SAFE DESIGN USING A DIVIDED-FLOW SHELL AND SINGLE-SEGMENTAL BAFFLES
CASE STUDY 12.3: PRODUCING A SAFE DESIGN USING A DIVIDED-FLOW SHELL AND DOUBLE-SEGMENTAL BAFFLES
CASE STUDY 12.4: PRODUCING A SAFE DESIGN USING A NO-TUBES-IN-WINDOW DESIGN
12.5 Rod Baffles
12.6 Acoustic Vibration
Chapter 13: Enhanced Heat Transfer
13.1 What is Enhanced Heat Transfer?
13.2 Benefits of Enhanced Heat Transfer
13.3 Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques
13.3.1 Low-fin tubes
13.3.2 High-flux tubes
13.3.3 Corrugated tubes
13.3.4 Tube inserts
13.3.4.1 Twisted tape inserts
13.3.4.2 Wire-fin tube inserts
CASE STUDY 13.1: COMPARISON OF DESIGNS WITH BARE TUBES AND TUBES WITH WIRE-FIN TUBE INSERTS
13.3.5 RODbaffle heat exchangers
13.3.6 Helical baffles (Helixchangers)
13.3.7 Twisted-tube heat exchangers
13.3.8 Plate heat exchangers
13.3.9 Spiral plate heat exchangers
13.3.10 Plate-fin heat exchangers
13.3.11 Printed circuit heat exchangers
13.3.12 Hybrid heat exchangers
13.4 Evaluation of heat transfer enhancement techniques
INDEX