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Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
SJR: 0.121 SNIP: 0.228 CiteScore™: 0.5

ISSN Druckformat: 0896-2960
ISSN Online: 2162-6553

Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevPhysRehabilMed.2019030529
pages 101-123

Factors Affecting Upper Extremity Kinematics in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review

Pavapriya Ponvel
Physiotherapy Programme and Center for Healthy Aging and Wellness, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Aziz, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia
Devinder Kaur Ajith Singh
Physiotherapy Programme and Center for Healthy Aging and Wellness, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Aziz, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia
Gan Kok Beng
Centre of Advanced Electronic and Communication Engineering (PAKET), Faculty of Electrical and System Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Siaw Chui Chai
Occupational Therapy Programme, Center for Rehabilitation and Special Needs, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


Understanding upper extremity (UE) kinematics in healthy adults is vital for comparison with adults with impairments. Although UE kinematics may be associated with several factors, information regarding these factors among healthy adults is limited. In this systematic review, we explored and summarized information regarding the factors that affect UE kinematics during functional movements and activities of daily living (ADL) among healthy adults. We searched databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCOHost, Scopus and Science Direct for relevant papers. A manual review of the retrieved articles was performed. Only papers published in English and that involved healthy participants with no UE impairments were included in this review. A paper was also included if it involved functional movement or ADL. Critical appraisal was performed using the Quality of Cross Sectional Studies assessment tool. Our search identified 1,108 articles, and 26 articles were retrieved based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The following factors were identified as affecting UE kinematics: age, gender, physical activity level, body mass index, limb dominance, features related to the target (target size and target position) and social interaction. Although these factors are associated with UE kinematics, how these factors influence UE movements remains unclear. An in-depth comprehension of UE kinematics and related factors is crucial to provide optimal care for clients during rehabilitation.


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