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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
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ISSN Druckformat: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2013007444
pages 361-378

CD40 Signaling to the Rescue: A CD8 Exhaustion Perspective in Chronic Infectious Diseases

Rajarshi Bhadra
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 20037
Dustin A. Cobb
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University
Imtiaz A. Khan
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University

ABSTRAKT

Chronic infectious diseases such as HIV, HBV, and HCV, among others, cause severe morbidity and mortality globally. Progressive decline in CD8 functionality, survival, and proliferative potential-a phenomenon referred to as CD8 exhaustion-is believed to be responsible for poor pathogen control in chronic infectious diseases. While the role of negative inhibitory receptors such as PD−1 in augmenting CD8 exhaustion has been extensively studied, the role of positive costimulatory receptors remains poorly understood. In this review, we discuss how one such costimulatory pathway, CD40−CD40L, regulates CD8 dysfunction and rescue. While the significance of this pathway has been extensively investigated in models of autoimmunity, acute infectious diseases, and tumor models, the role played by CD40−CD40L in regulating CD8 exhaustion in chronic infectious diseases is just beginning to be understood. Considering that monotherapy with blocking antibodies targeting inhibitory PD−1−PD−L1 pathway is only partially effective at ameliorating CD8 exhaustion and that humanized CD40 agonist antibodies are currently available, a better understanding of the role of the CD40−CD40L pathway in chronic infectious diseases will pave the way for the development of more robust immunotherapeutic and prophylactic vaccination strategies.


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