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真核基因表达评论综述™
影响因子: 2.156 5年影响因子: 2.255 SJR: 0.649 SNIP: 0.599 CiteScore™: 3

ISSN 打印: 1045-4403
ISSN 在线: 2162-6502

真核基因表达评论综述™

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukarGeneExpr.v9.i3-4.20
pages 175-182

Evolution of Transcriptional Control from Prokaryotic Beginnings to Eukaryotic Complexities

Lili Huang
Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St., Boston, MA 02115
Rong J. Guan
Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St., Boston, MA 02115
Arthur B. Pardee
Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St., Boston, MA 02115

ABSTRACT

Mechanisms for regulating gene transcription became increasingly complex as organisms evolved. In prokaryotes the relatively simple mechanism of repression is based on a few proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences in a ligand-dependent fashion. In eukaryotes large complexes that include ligand binding proteins regulate transcription. Lower eukaryotes developed an additional level of control based on protein complexes that include modifying enzymes. The DNA/histone complex, in combination with gene-specific transcriptional factors, is the basis of gene regulation in eukaryotes. Higher eukaryotes took regulation a level further by methylating CpGs in promoter sequences of DNA, thereby allowing binding of histone deacetylases and inhibiting transcription. Finally, long-lasting "superrepression" provides another mechanism for coordinate transcriptional regulation of large blocks of genes.


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