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雾化与喷雾
影响因子: 1.737 5年影响因子: 1.518 SJR: 0.814 SNIP: 1.18 CiteScore™: 2.2

ISSN 打印: 1044-5110
ISSN 在线: 1936-2684

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雾化与喷雾

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2020032492
pages 861-893

3D SIMULATION OF TURBULENT AND CAVITATING FLOW FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY BREAKUP MECHANISMS IN REALISTIC DIESEL INJECTION PROCESSES

Martin Blume
Chair of Hydraulic Fluid Machinery, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr, 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany
Philip Schwarz
Chair of Hydraulic Fluid Machinery, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr, 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany
Henrik Rusche
Wikki GmbH, Ziegelbergsweg, 68, 38855 Wernigerode, Germany
Lukas Weiß
Chair of Technical Thermodynamics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Am Weichselgarten, 8, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
Michael Wensing
Chair of Technical Thermodynamics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Am Weichselgarten, 8, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
Romuald Skoda
Chair of Hydraulic Fluid Machinery, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr, 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany

ABSTRACT

The cavitating in-nozzle flow and primary breakup are investigated for a ballistic injection cycle of a close-to-production 9-hole heavy-duty diesel injector. The Reynolds and Weber numbers correspond to a realistic injection. Real nozzle geometry and a 360° domain are utilized. A pressure-based three-phase volume of fluid flow solver based on OpenFOAM has been developed. A large eddy simulation is performed and primary ligaments split off from the liquid jet core are directly resolved down to the available grid resolution. The interaction of cavitation and turbulence is studied by inspection of vortex structures and a statistical evaluation of primary ligaments. The simulation results are validated by mass flow and laser induced fluorescence (μLIF) measurements of the near-nozzle spray. An agreement to the measured spray shape in the range of the cyclic fluctuations is obtained. A significant asymmetry of the spray shape emphasizes the importance of using the real geometry in the simulation. At low needle lift a multitude of small vortices and cloud cavitation occur in the nozzle hole, while at high needle lift larger string-shaped vortex structures and string cavitation are observed. A comparison with a quasi-steady full lift simulation reveals significant deviations of vortex, cavitation, and ligament structures and thus the highly unsteady flow field generated during the opening phase, which survives far into the closing phase. The highly resolved simulation results contribute to the understanding of the complex physics of in-nozzle flow and primary breakup at realistic diesel injection and may be utilized for enhancements of less resource-demanding primary breakup models.

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